Scientific discoveries pave the way for technology that responds appropriately to our expressions.
Hume argues that emotions drive choice and well-being.
“Reason is and ought only to be the slave of the passions” - David Hume.
At Hume AI, we take this as a guiding principle behind ethical AI: to address our needs, technology should be guided by how we express them.
Recognizing the need to map out the internal states that animate thought and action, Hume also proposed a taxonomy of over 16 emotions, but lacked scientific evidence.
Darwin surveys human expression.
Darwin described similarities and differences in over 20 facial, bodily, and vocal expressions across species, cultures, and stages of life.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals was his third major work.
He lacked statistical methods to test his hypotheses about human expression. But 150 years later, studies are confirming many of Darwin’s observations.
Ekman documents six facial expressions.
Paul Ekman traveled the world to study whether six expressions were universally recognized.
By focusing on a narrow set of behaviors, Ekman was able to use the limited data available to him to confirm some of Darwin’s ideas.
However, the focus on six possible meanings for expressions also introduced what we call the 30% problem: the focus of scientists for 50 years on less than 30% of what people express.
1970 - 2020
Scientists reduce expression even further.
1970 - 2020
While some scientists assume six possible meanings of expressions, others attempt to derive taxonomies of expression from data.
However, due to small sample sizes and statistical limitations, these results lead to even more reductive theories.
Some scientists endorse “core affect": the notion that the meanings of expressive behaviors are largely captured by how pleasant or unpleasant and calm or aroused they seem.